Monday, February 26Food Security Matters

Upo Farming: How to Plant and Grow Bottle Gourd

Upo farming, also known as calabash farming, is the cultivation of the bottle gourd plant (Lagenaria siceraria) for its edible fruits. Bottle gourd is a versatile vegetable that is widely grown in various parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and the Americas. It offers potential economic benefits to farmers through its market demand, culinary uses, and potential health benefits

What is Bottle Gourd

Bottle gourd, scientifically known as Lagenaria siceraria, is a type of vine-grown vegetable that belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae. It is also referred to by various other names such as calabash, white-flowered gourd, long melon, upo (Tagalog), Kalubay (Ilonggo), and lauki in different regions.

Bottle gourd is characterized by its elongated, cylindrical shape and pale green or white skin. It can vary in size from small to quite large, and the flesh inside is usually white, mild-tasting, and watery. The vegetable is often harvested before it fully matures to ensure a tender texture.

upo farming
Bottle Gourd (Upo)

Bottle gourd is widely cultivated and consumed in various parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and the Americas. It is a versatile ingredient used in cooking to make soups, stews, curries, and side dishes. The young, tender bottle gourd can also be eaten raw in salads.

In addition to its culinary uses, bottle gourd has been used for various traditional and medicinal purposes in different cultures. It’s important to note that while bottle gourd offers potential health benefits, some varieties of bottle gourd can contain compounds called cucurbitacins that are bitter and toxic in excessive amounts. Therefore, it’s essential to choose and prepare bottle gourd carefully, and it’s advisable to consult with experts or follow traditional practices when using it for medicinal purposes.

Different Bottle Gourd Varieties and Cultivars

There are several different varieties and cultivars of Upo, each with its own unique characteristics and uses. These varieties can differ in terms of shape, size, color, taste, and texture. Here are a few notable bottle gourd varieties:

  1. Long Bottle Gourd (Sorakaya, Dudhi): This is the most common variety, characterized by its long and cylindrical shape. It can vary in size from small to very long and is typically light green or white in color. It has a mild taste and is used in various culinary dishes.
  2. Round Bottle Gourd: As the name suggests, this variety has a more rounded shape compared to the long variety. It is often used to make stuffed dishes or curries.
  3. Bitter Gourd (Bitter Melon): While not the same as the standard bottle gourd, bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is another type of gourd that is often confused with bottle gourd due to its name. Bitter gourd is known for its bitter taste and unique appearance. It’s used in various cuisines for its potential health benefits.
  4. Himalayan Round Bottle Gourd: This variety is known for its small and rounded shape, resembling a small pumpkin. It has a slightly sweet taste and is often used in traditional dishes.
  5. Petha: Petha is a type of bottle gourd that is popular in North India, especially in sweets. It is usually white or yellow in color and is candied to make a sweet confection known as “petha.”
  6. Bush Type Bottle Gourd: This variety is characterized by its compact growth habit, making it suitable for small gardens or containers. It produces smaller-sized bottle gourds.
  7. Luffa (Sponge Gourd): Luffa is a type of gourd that is also known as a sponge gourd. Unlike edible bottle gourds, luffa gourds are fibrous and are often grown for their mature fibers, which can be used as natural scrubbers or sponges.
  8. Dudhi Patra: This variety has a distinctive patra (leaf) shape at the base, which sets it apart from the standard bottle gourd varieties.
  9. Pear-Shaped Bottle Gourd: As the name suggests, this variety has a pear-like shape. It is often used for decorative purposes and can also be consumed in cooking.
  10. Snake Gourd: While not a bottle gourd, snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina) is a related vine-grown vegetable. It has a long, cylindrical shape and a mild taste. It’s used in various Asian cuisines and has a slightly crunchy texture.

It’s important to note that the availability of these varieties can vary based on geographical regions and local preferences. When selecting bottle gourd varieties, consider factors such as the intended use (culinary or decorative), growth habits, and taste preferences. Always ensure that the chosen variety is safe for consumption and follow proper cultivation practices.

Upo Farming: How to Plant and Grow Bottle Gourd

Planting and growing bottle gourd involves several steps, from preparing the land to harvesting the mature gourds. Here’s a step-by-step guide:

1. Land Preparation:

  • Choose a sunny location with well-draining soil. Bottle gourds thrive in full sunlight.
  • Clear the area of weeds, debris, and rocks.
  • Loosen the soil to a depth of about 12-18 inches (30-45 cm) to ensure good root development.

2. Seed Selection:

  • Choose high-quality seeds from a reputable source.
  • If possible, choose seeds that are disease-resistant.

3. Germination:

  • Bottle gourd seeds can be directly sown in the garden or started indoors in biodegradable pots a few weeks before the last frost date. Transplant seedlings outdoors once they have at least two true leaves.

4. Planting:

  • Sow seeds about 1 inch (2.5 cm) deep and space them about 3-4 feet (90-120 cm) apart in rows or mounds.
  • If planting in rows, keep about 6 feet (180 cm) between rows to allow the vines to spread.

5. Watering:

  • Keep the soil consistently moist but not waterlogged, especially during germination and early growth.
  • Once the plants are established, water deeply but less frequently to encourage deep root growth.

6. Fertilization:

  • Prior to planting, incorporate well-rotted compost or organic matter into the soil.
  • You can apply a balanced fertilizer (such as 10-10-10) at planting and again during the growing season according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

7. Support and Training:

  • As the vines grow, they may benefit from trellising or support structures to keep them off the ground and promote good air circulation.

8. Pest and Disease Management:

  • Keep an eye out for common pests like aphids, squash bugs, and cucumber beetles. Use appropriate methods like handpicking, natural predators, or organic insecticides to control them.
  • Fungal diseases can affect bottle gourd plants. Ensure good air circulation and avoid overhead watering to minimize disease risk.

9. Harvesting:

  • Bottle gourds are ready for harvest when they reach their mature size and have a dull, hard skin.
  • Use a clean, sharp knife or pruning shears to cut the gourd from the vine, leaving a short stem attached.
  • Harvest regularly to encourage continuous fruiting.

10. Post-Harvest:

  • Wash the harvested gourds and allow them to dry in a cool, well-ventilated area.
  • Store them in a dry place away from direct sunlight.

Remember that specific practices may vary depending on your climate, soil type, and local conditions. It’s also a good idea to consult local gardening resources or agricultural extension services for advice tailored to your region. Proper care and attention will help you successfully grow healthy and productive bottle gourd plants.

Upo Profitability and Yield Per Hectare

The profitability and yield of bottle gourd cultivation can vary based on several factors, including geographic location, climate, soil conditions, cultivation practices, market demand, and the level of expertise of the farmer. Here’s a general overview of potential profitability and yield per hectare for bottle gourd cultivation:

Yield Per Hectare:

  • Bottle gourd yield can vary widely depending on the factors mentioned above.
  • Under good agricultural practices and favorable conditions, an average yield of bottle gourd can range from 15,000 to 25,000 kg per hectare (6,000 to 10,000 lbs per acre).
  • High-yield varieties, proper fertilization, pest control, and irrigation management can contribute to achieving higher yields.


  • The profitability of bottle gourd cultivation depends on both yield and market prices.
  • Market demand and supply dynamics play a significant role in determining the selling price.
  • Direct-to-consumer sales, local markets, and wholesale distribution can all impact profitability.

Costs and Investment:

  • Initial costs may include seeds, land preparation, irrigation infrastructure, fertilizers, pesticides, labor, and equipment.
  • Investment in good-quality seeds and proper agricultural inputs can contribute to higher yield potential and better quality produce.

Market Demand:

  • Profitability is influenced by the demand for bottle gourd in your region.
  • Understanding local consumer preferences and trends can help you tailor your production to meet market needs.

Marketing Strategy:

  • Developing a solid marketing strategy can impact profitability. Identifying potential buyers, such as local markets, supermarkets, or wholesalers, and establishing a reliable distribution network can improve sales.


  • While bottle gourd cultivation can be profitable, it’s essential to consider potential risks such as crop diseases, weather fluctuations, and market volatility.
  • Proper pest and disease management, irrigation, and overall crop care are crucial for maximizing yield and profitability.


  • For accurate and specific information on profitability and yield in your region, it’s advisable to consult local agricultural experts, extension services, or experienced farmers.

Remember that the numbers provided here are general estimates and can vary significantly based on regional and local conditions. Conducting thorough research, proper planning, and seeking advice from local agricultural experts can help you make informed decisions about bottle gourd cultivation and potential profitability in your area.

Is Upo Farming profitable in the Philippines?

Upo farming can potentially be profitable in the Philippines, as the country’s climate and conditions are suitable for growing this vegetable. However, the profitability of bottle gourd farming in the Philippines, or any other region, depends on several factors:

  1. Market Demand: The demand for bottle gourd in local markets and supermarkets plays a significant role in determining profitability. If there is a consistent demand for bottle gourd in the Philippines, it can create a favorable market for farmers.
  2. Cultivation Practices: Proper cultivation practices, including land preparation, seed selection, irrigation, fertilization, and pest control, can impact yield and quality. Efficient practices contribute to higher yields and better returns.
  3. Yield Potential: Achieving a good yield per hectare is crucial for profitability. Factors such as the choice of high-yield varieties, soil quality, and proper agronomic practices can influence yield.
  4. Costs and Investment: Initial investment in seeds, inputs, labor, and equipment can impact profitability. Managing costs while maintaining quality is essential.
  5. Market Channels: Efficient distribution and marketing strategies can affect profitability. Having access to reliable channels to sell your produce, whether local markets, supermarkets, or wholesalers, can impact your income.
  6. Competition: The presence of other farmers or suppliers growing bottle gourd can affect prices and market dynamics. Being aware of the competitive landscape is important for pricing your produce.
  7. Crop Management: Proper pest and disease management are critical for a successful harvest. Diseases or pests can reduce yield and quality, impacting profitability.
  8. Government Support and Policies: Government initiatives, subsidies, or support for agricultural activities can influence profitability.
  9. Geographic Location: Different regions within the Philippines might have varying conditions that can impact yield and demand. Some areas might be more conducive to bottle gourd cultivation than others.
  10. Market Trends: Staying informed about market trends and consumer preferences can help you adjust your cultivation and marketing strategies accordingly.

To assess the potential profitability of bottle gourd farming in the Philippines, it’s recommended to conduct a thorough feasibility study that takes into account all these factors specific to your region. Consulting with local agricultural experts, extension services, and experienced farmers in your area can provide valuable insights into the local conditions and market dynamics. This will help you make informed decisions about whether bottle gourd farming is a profitable venture for you in the Philippines.

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