Wednesday, February 28Food Security Matters

Philippine Guyabano Farming and Production Guide

Guyabano is one of the most beloved fruits in the Philippines and guyabano farming is also considered profitable and sustainable. If you are here because you want to learn about guyabano farming and production, you come to the right place. Click here to download the guyabano farming and production guide in PDF format from the DA website.

Introduction to Guyabano Farming

Soursop (Anona muricata Linn.) Also known as guyabano, it belongs to the Family Anonaceae, other familiar fruits besides guyabano are atis (Anona squamosa or sugar apple), anonas (Anona reticulata or custard apple), and atemoya (Anona). Leaves are smooth, shiny, oblong-obovate to oblong. It is a small tree about 5 to 7 meters in height. The flowers are large, yellowish or greenish-yellow, and solitary. There are six large, fleshy, or leathery petals in two= series. They are heart-shaped, with a pointed tip, and up to 5 centimeters in length and 3 centimeters in breadth. In the center of the flower is a cone-shaped mass of many carpels which will form the fruit, and below this are very numerous stamens. Fruit is ovoid, up to 18 centimeters long, and covered with a small scattered, soft spine-like process. Skin is thin, and the pulp is soft, white, and fleshy, with an agreeable, but rather a sour flavor.

guyabano farming

Based on BAS crop statistics of 2003; a total land area of 3,016 has. were planted with the following as the five leading producing regions: Western Visayas (705 has.); Region! V-A (643 has.); Cagayan Valley (400 has.); Central Visayas (169 has.); and Central Luzon (165 has.).

Guyabano’s Medicinal Value

The guyabano fruit is used as a cure for cough, scurvy, and fever. It contains Vitamin A, calcium, and phosphorous and is rich in vitamins B and C. It also contains 11.62 percent sugar, mostly glucose, and fructose. The green fruits and seeds can induce vomiting, remedy dysentery, and arrest secretion or bleeding. The sap of the young leaves may be applied directly on pimples to induce suppuration. The sap is also considered parasiticidal. An alcoholic extract of the leaves, when distilled with steam, yields a small amount of essential oil. The portion of alcoholic extract that is soluble in water contains a large amount of potassium chloride together with dextrose tannins, amorphous products, and a small amount of an alkaloid substance that could not be crystallized. The leaves and roots also cure colic and convulsions.

Guyabano Varieties

There are two strains presently grown.

  1. Aguinaldo – Fruit, 1kg; peel, yellow-green; flesh, juicy, sub-acid, 78% of the fruit
    weight; seeds, 70 per fruit
  2. Davao – Fruit, 1.7 kg; peel, light green; flesh, moderately juicy, pleasantly subacid, 82% of fruit weight; seeds, 82 per fruit.

Guyabano Farming: Culture and Management

The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm temperatures; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F) can be fatal. The fruit becomes dry and is no longer good for concentration.

Soil and Climatic Requirements

The plant grows in any kind of soil, but a fairly deep, friable soil of volcanic origin is conducive to growth and fruiting. It grows better on soil with pH ranges of 6.1 to 6.5. It thrives very well from sea level up to 500 meters above sea level. It is best to plant them at the start of the rainy season.

Propagation

Guyabano is usually propagated by seeds. However, selected trees of inherent characters may also be propagated asexually by marcotting, inarching, grafting, and budding.

Guyabano trees must be planted 3 to 4 meters apart. It will start to bear fruits in the second and third years and can have a yield of 3.7 tons per hectare.

A 4 x 4 meters spacing scheme – or 625 trees per hectare – is suggested for light-texture soils. Wider spacing is recommended for clayey soil. Outplant at the start of the rainy season to give the seedlings time to develop good root systems before the dry months.

Guyabano Farming Nursery Practices

1. Seed Preparation and Germination

The seeds to be used as a source of planting materials should be obtained from outstanding mother trees with a characteristic of the hardy, prolific, and regular bearer and its fruits be medium-sized to large, well-formed, few-seeded, and of excellent quality. Seeds from the fruit should be cleaned in tap water and allowed to air dry. They may be stored for quite some time but it is best to plant them directly. They are sown in seed boxes or flats containing fine and/or sandy soil of about 2.5 cm distance and 1 cm deep. The seedbed is provided with shade and watered regularly to keep the medium moist at all times. Fresh seeds germinate from 20 to 30 days with 85 to 90 percent germination.

2. Care and Transplanting of Seedlings

Seedlings are watered regularly and if insect pests and diseases become a problem sprayed with insecticide and fungicide. They may be transferred in individual containers when the seedlings are 3-4 inches high or the first set of leaves has matured. The soil medium to be used should be clay loam preferably mixed with sand or compost. The newly transplanted seedlings are placed under a partial shade area and, when well established, they may be exposed to the sun for hardening. They should be regularly watered to ensure continuous growth. Seedlings are ready for field transplanting when they are 6 to 8 months old or about 15 cm tall.

Nutritive Mineral Content of Guyabano

Guayabano fruit is an excellent source of vitamins B and C. However, it is deficient in Vitamin A, calcium, and phosphorous.

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Fertilizer Application

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Pests and Diseases

guyabano-pests-and-diseases

Anthracnose is the most common disease of guayabano, caused by a fungus and transmitted using wind-splashed rain and contact with infected fruits.

Spray flowers and developing fruits with any of the following:

  • Benlate at 2-4 grams per gallon of water
  • Manzate at 6-8 grams per gallon of water

The pink disease is caused by a fungus infective material is the common mode of transmission. Symptoms: the appearance of cracks on trunks or branches and secretions of gums; affected area covered with a thick mass of pink mycelia during the rainy season; the drying of mycelia during dry weather with color changing to dirty white or gray eventually leading to the die-back condition.

Control:

  1. Prune and burn infected branches and twigs.
  2. Disinfect by spraying with copper fungicide or lime sulfur mixture.
  3. Keep the orchard clean of any source of infections.

Harvesting

Maturity

Fruits are mature when they become dark and shiny green with recurved spines set far apart and the skin appearing to burst with pressure from within. Ripe fruits are light yellow and soft.

Storage

Fruits for the factory are placed in a bodega under ordinary room temperature and allowed to ripen with firmness until they are ready for processing/preservation. On the other hand, ripe fruits may be held 2 or 3 days longer in the refrigerator, but the skin blackens and become unsightly. However, the flesh and flavor are not affected.

Questions Related to Guyabano Farming and Production

How long it takes for guyabano to bear fruit?

The guyabano trees bear fruits in 3 – 5 years after planting. They flower most months of the year but the peak of flowering is May and June, and the fruit ripens in November and December. The guyabano fruits should be harvested when they are fully matured.

How long does guyabano take from flowering to maturity?

Guyabano needs a warm, dry climate during its flowering period. Such a climate favors good fruit set formation as it is generally a cross-pollinated tree. Adequate soil moisture, however, is required for good fruit development. It takes about four months from flowering until fruit maturity.

What is the best fertilizer for a soursop tree?

The soursop tree requires fertilizing to maintain a healthy, vigorous plant. A commercial N-P-K fertilizer, such as 8-18-8, should be applied about three or four times per year at a rate of 2-3 pounds per plant. The granular fertilizer should be worked into the soil around the root zone of the plant and watered.

What month is guyabano season in the Philippines?

In Luzon, guyabanos are available from March to May while in Visayas and Mindanao, they can be available from August to October.

What is the fruit capital of the Philippines?

Davao is also the largest city (in size) in the Philippines and hosts plentiful harvests of durian, mangosteen, pomelo, banana, lanzones, papaya among others. This city on the southern island of Mindanao is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of some of the aforementioned exotic fruits.

How many years does it take for soursop to bear fruit?

A rapid grower, soursop trees produce their first crop three to five years from seeding. Seeds stay viable for up to six months but better success is met by planting within 30 days of harvest and seeds will germinate within 15-30 days.

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