Saturday, May 18Food Security Matters

Garlic Farming in the Philippines: How to Plant and Grow Bawang for Profit

Garlic farming is a profitable agribusiness venture in the Philippines if done correctly and could be a sustainable source of income. If you are here because you want to know more about garlic farming, continue reading. We’ll explore the benefits of growing garlic, its financial rewards, and how to select and plant a suitable variety. We’ll also provide tips for harvesting, curing, and storing your bounty. Read on to learn more about garlic farming and the fantastic rewards it can bring.

Garlic, scientifically known as Allium sativum L., is a perennial herb that is grown throughout the world. It produces a bulb that is surrounded by sheaths that are composed of thin-shelled bulblets, cloves, or sets, all of which are capable of forming a new plant. It is the bulblet in fresh or processed form that is used for food, condiment, and medicinal purposes.

The average yield of garlic in the Philippines is very low at 2.78 t/ha compared to about 10.6 t/ha in Thailand. This is due to the state of garlic planting materials which, through the years, have accumulated diseases through asexual propagation. Up until 1970, the only virus disease was known as the tangle top disease. The Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) has since identified the onion yellow dwarf virus, garlic common latent virus, shallot latent virus, and other viruses as also present.

Overview of Garlic Farming

Garlic has been celebrated for its culinary and medicinal properties for centuries. As a result, garlic farming is one of the most profitable and easy ways to produce a high-yield crop. This guide will provide an overview of garlic farming, walking you through the basics of starting a garlic farm, cultivating and harvesting the crop, and marketing and selling your garlic. With the right information, garlic farming is a great way to make a good profit.

Newly harvested garlic

The Benefits of Growing Garlic

Garlic farming can be quite a lucrative form of agriculture. Several financial and other benefits come with growing garlic. The first benefit is that garlic is a relatively low-maintenance crop that doesn’t require a lot of resources to cultivate. Additionally, it can be grown almost anywhere, so it is a great option for farmers with limited land or resources. Additionally, garlic has a long shelf life and can be stored for long periods, making it easier to store and transport. Finally, garlic has a great market value, as it is in high demand, and is often used in a variety of culinary dishes. With the right knowledge and resources, growing garlic can be a great source of profit for farmers.

1. Financial Benefits

Garlic farming is a lucrative agricultural business that offers numerous financial rewards for growers. With the right management and cultivation techniques, farmers can easily yield a profit from their garlic crops. Studies have demonstrated that garlic can bring in yields of up to 12,000-15,000 kg/ha, with returns of up to Php 130,000 per hectare. Garlic is also a much sought-after commodity, with prices ranging from Php 70 to Php 300 per kilo, depending upon the variety, location, and season. Therefore, garlic farming can be a highly profitable venture – with the right resources and investments.

2. Nutritional Benefits

Garlic is an incredibly nutritious vegetable crop that can provide a range of health benefits. Rich in vitamins and minerals, garlic supplies many vitamins and minerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, and vitamins A, B, and C. Eating garlic can help reduce cholesterol and blood pressure, boost the immune system, and ease digestion. Studies have also suggested that regular consumption of garlic can reduce the risk of certain cancers and help fight bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Therefore, growing garlic can not only be profitable but also incredibly beneficial.

How to Plant Garlic

Growing garlic is a rewarding experience that can bring in a good profit. To get started, first select a variety of garlic suited to your climate and soil. Once you have your garlic seeds, it is time to prepare the soil. Loose, well-draining soil is best, so make sure to add organic matter, such as compost, and till the soil accordingly. For optimal performance, the soil should be close to pH 6.0.

When the soil has been prepped, it’s time to plant! Plant each garlic clove, root side down, 2-3 inches deep. Planting 6-8 inches apart will give them plenty of space to grow and mature. When planting, be sure to cover the cloves back up with some soil. Water the planted garlic after planting and keep the soil evenly moist throughout the growth period. This will help the garlic to produce large, healthy bulbs.

In the Philippines, garlic has a lot of grown varieties (e.g. Bang-ar, Batanes Red, Ilocos Pink, Ilocos Tan Bolters, Ilocos White, Mexican, and MMSU Gem) mainly in Region I (Ilocos Norte) and Region II (Nueva Vizcaya). According to the Selected Statistics for Agriculture 2017 by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), the volume production for garlic in 2021 was 8.2 thousand metric tons representing the 2.6 thousand hectares area planted and harvested in the Philippines.

  1. Prepare the land by plowing and harrowing it three times to kill weeds and obtain a fine, firm, smooth, and level surface.
  2. Plant in 2 to 3 days after preparing furrows 5 inches deep, 15 to 30 inches apart. Spread rice hull evenly throughout the planting area.
  3. Before leveling the field, apply a 12-24-12 fertilizer mixture of urea and 14-14-14 or ammonium sulfate and 14-14-14.
  4. A garlic clove that will be planted should be prepared the afternoon before the day of planting. Carefully separate the cloves, leaving those that are very small. Do not remove the thick protective scale that surrounds each clove. The cloves should be soaked in 3 tablespoons of Malathion added to 5 gallons of water for 2 minutes, and drained of the solution before planting.
  5. The best time to plant garlic is from October to November when the weather is more conducive to early growth.
  6. Hold clove between thumb and forefinger with roots downward. Set one-fourth of the clove under the soil and press the soil gently and firmly toward the clove. Rows must be 20 cm apart.
  7. For bulbs to be formed, they must be cultivated, weeded, and irrigated. Weeding should be done regularly. Maintain normal soil moisture without over-watering. Irrigate the field only when the soil dries out.

You may also download the garlic farming business PDF guide from the Department of Agriculture (DA) here.

Harvesting, Curing, and Storing Garlic

Harvesting your garlic crop is essential for a successful farming operation. Garlic cloves should be harvested when the leaves turn yellow and the stems start to dry. Care should be taken when harvesting to avoid damaging the garlic heads, and dirt should be removed from them as soon as possible. Once harvested, garlic bulbs should be cured in a cool and dry place. Curing helps to extend their shelf life and improve flavor. After curing, the garlic bulbs should be stored in a cool, dry, and dark place. A temperature between 45° and 60°F provides ideal storage conditions, as long as there is plenty of air circulation. Proper storage allows the garlic to maintain its high quality for up to 12 months.

Questions Related to Garlic Farming

How long does garlic take to grow in the Philippines?

It matures 105 to 120 days after planting. Other varieties such as Batanes White, Batangas White, Ilocos Pink, and Nueva Ecija Pink are available in the country but these varieties are not yet officially recommended for commercial production.

How profitable is garlic farming?

Garlic is easy to plant, grow, and harvest and the plants are compact, so a large amount of garlic can be grown in a small area. Garlic can produce an income of up to Php 130,000 per hectare in just three months, so even a small garlic patch can bring in thousands of pesos.

Where does garlic grow in the Philippines?

Ilocos is the largest garlic-producing region in the Philippines, contributing more than 65 percent to the country’s total production. It also has the best comparative advantage because of its agro-climatic suitability.

What month is best to plant garlic in the Philippines?

In the Philippines, garlic grows best during the dry season, and this typically starts from November until early May. This doesn’t mean though that you can not grow it at any other time, except that you might get smaller bulbs during rainy days.

Is garlic easy to farm?

Garlic growing is easy in either the home garden or on a large farm. Maintaining top quality requires care and attention. Weeding is important as garlic does not like competition. Watering and not watering, harvesting on time, and curing properly are all important for producing bulbs with good keeping qualities.

What is the garlic capital of the Philippines?

The House Committee on Agriculture and Food on Tuesday approved on second reading a bill declaring Ilocos Norte as the garlic capital amid the country’s heavy reliance on imports to meet local demand.

Will garlic grow if not harvested?

Occasionally, that happens by accident. You intend to harvest garlic, but the stem snaps off or a bulb or two get forgotten in the ground. What is this? The following year, each clove of that garlic plant will send up a new sprout.

Do the Philippines import garlic?

In 2021, the total value of garlic imported to the Philippines amounted to around 1.25 billion Philippine pesos, reflecting an increase from the previous year. This was equivalent to around 93.39 thousand metric tons of garlic imported to the country in that year.

Garlic Farming Conclusion

Garlic is one of the most versatile and popular ingredients in cuisines around the world, and for good reason. From its strong flavor and nutritional benefits to its financial profitability, garlic farming is a rewarding and beneficial venture for anyone looking to make a profit off of home-grown produce. This comprehensive guide has provided information on garlic and its farming, from an overview of the basics to instructions on harvesting, curing, and storing. With the right knowledge and guidance, garlic farming can be an enjoyable experience and a lucrative endeavor.

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